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The only criterion for judging the level of scientists in their work.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking

Who do I think is smarter? Einstein is famous for his theory of relativity. He discovered gravity, relativity, and Einstein's quantum description of light (and he won the Nobel Prize for that). He also gave the facts about time.

Einstein proved that time is an illusion; it is relative - it can change according to the speed of different observers in space. For Einstein, time is "four-dimensional space". Space is described as a three-dimensional arena that provides coordinates for travelers - such as length, width, and height - to display positions. Time provides another coordinate - direction - although, by convention, it just moves forward. Instead, a new theory asserts that time is "real."

Stephen Hawking, who is most famous for his discovery of black hole radiation can detect a special tool. "Stephen Hawking is a world-famous British theoretical physicist who contributes to the field of cosmology, general relativity, and quantum gravity, especially in black holes It's a complete understanding of the universe, why it's like this, why it exists. 

But I also believe their IQ is 160... But since Stephen Hawking lived longer and new technology was introduced I would say Stephen Hawking, but I'm not sure. The initial answer is: who is the greater genius: Stephen Hawking or Einstein?






who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking

The only criterion for judging the ability of scientists in their work. Einstein contributed more to science than Hawking, at least so far. Einstein made great contributions to cosmology, statistical mechanics, quantum physics and electrodynamics. 

He also introduced special relativity and general relativity. There is no denying that I know very little about Hawking's work except for the basis of his radiation theory, but many of his works don't seem to have as great influence as many of Einstein's works. 

As our understanding of black holes continues to deepen, Hawking's work may become extremely useful in solving problems. At that time, however, Einstein played a huge role in the development of two pillars of theoretical physics: general relativity and quantum mechanics. In my opinion, it makes him more like a genius.

If Einstein was alive, Stephen Hawking would send him a message about why he didn't believe in black holes, even though he knew they existed. Hawking is famous for his understanding of the birth and death of the universe, in which Einstein's theory of relativity collapsed. 

Why does general relativity fail? Why does general relativity collapse in the center of a black hole? Why is Hawking famous? Stephen Hawking's curiosity Albert Einstein is the famous founder of relativity, which explains the universe from a different perspective from classical and quantum physics, but GR can't answer the question of the universe.... the birth and death of the universe now you decide who is the genius?

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


If you mean that intelligence can grasp and invent new and thoughtful ideas naturally, and then two completely different ideas of different times can't compare the ability of spirit and subject ideology, they are both born in the field of completely different time intervals and physics. 

Therefore, it cannot be said that both have the same opportunity to experience the progress of Physical Science in the same period. Now, if you say the word intelligence can produce breakthrough work in their respective fields, then Einstein can only and not others, most importantly, Sir Isaac Newton, no one has any other chance than Newton to hold the pioneering work in the field of biological science.

Einstein's most famous theories are special relativity and general relativity. He also made important contributions to statistical mechanics, especially his treatment of Brownian motion, his comparison with the solution of the thermal paradox, and his connection between wave motion and dissipation. 

Despite Einstein's reservations on its interpretation, he also made a pioneering contribution to quantum mechanics and indirect quantum field theory, mainly through the theoretical study of photons.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


In an interview with the New York Times, Hawking said in person, "I don't know how intelligent I am. People who boast about their high IQ are all "Messers". (the article is entitled the science of second-guessing)

The intelligence of Hawking with that of Einstein, Newton, Euler, Turing, and so on. And no matter the scientific discoveries of later generations are always based on the predecessors, how can people compare their brains with each other?

History of IQ test and eugenics

It is always a difficult job to measure and compare people's intelligence level. Psychologists mostly agree that there are many dimensions of human cognitive ability and intellectual ability, which combine with each other and produce various comparative advantages.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


However, the measurement of "brain" is the urgent need of modern society. At the end of the 19th century, the west, which just got rid of the aristocracy system and introduced democracy and free competition urgently needed a set of new standards to reasonably and legally determine the division of labor and arrange the position for everyone.

The psychologist Binet was born at the right time. He has a strong interest in children's intellectual development. Based on his own research and experience, he launched the Binet Simon intelligence scale in 1905.

Alfred Binet (1857-1911), French experimental psychologist and founder of the intelligence test created the method of measuring intelligence together with Theodore Simon in 1905 and compiled the Binet Simon scale.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


Different from the common people's understanding, this scale does not measure your absolute "intelligence value". Binet introduced a new statistical method to measure the position of your intelligence in the same age group.

In other words, it's a brain ranking test.

Wisdom quotient, like its name, is a division quotient: your score divided by the average score of your age group. Binet assumes that IQ, like height, weight, and other factors, is also normal distribution. If you have an IQ of 100, that means you belong to the population average, which is the center of the IQ distribution. If your IQ is 140, you are over 99.5% of the world.

Normal distribution of IQ

As you can see, this set of standards is entirely based on statistics and artificially defined. Later, many psychologists revised Binet's intelligence scale. To this day, we still test IQ using the "descendants" of this scale.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


In 1911, Binet died, but his scale suddenly came to life. This year, a major overhaul was scheduled to expand the scope of IQ testing to adults. In the same year, Davenport wrote about the relationship between genetics and eugenics.

Eugenics has become popular in the United States because of the advocacy of some geneticists. At the same time, some Protestant theologians put forward that only by shaping the body of Christ's elite soldiers can we truly fulfill God's requirements. 

According to the porous genetic theory at that time, not only the skin color, height, and physical strength can be inherited, but also the intellectual aspect is "Laozi reactionary son bastard".

At the same time as the popularity of anthropometry, the IQ test is also famous. Everyone wants to test IQ, to "give birth and nurture", to help the seemingly humble race choose the right place at that time.

In this set of IQ tests, different races perform very differently. The average score of American Jews may be as high as 125, while that of African Americans is only about 70 - a little higher than the "mentally retarded" line.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking

When racism prevailed, black people were not even a species with white people
A large number of "mentally deficient" people were sent to shelters or forced sterilization. In The 1930s, more than 30 states in the United States passed the law of compulsory sterilization for the mentally retarded. By 1935, more than 20000 people had been forced to be sterilized.

The dream of eugenics didn't come to an end until World War II. Hawking was born in 1941.

Incredible genius

Although Binet originally developed intelligence tests to distinguish between ordinary children and gifted children, humans are a wonderful species. Some geniuses, measured by their IQ, are undoubtedly insulting.

For example, the father of the computer, von Neumann is said to have learned Greek at the age of six and mastered calculus at the age of eight. Two students played with the computer for a whole night, and he gave the result in a few minutes.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


For example, lamanujiang, an Indian mathematician, has never been to a university. He has developed his own mathematical system by self-study and put forward several important conjectures and more than 100 mathematical theorems.

For example, Mr. Zhao Yuanren, who knows seven foreign languages and 33 dialects, has taught mathematics, physics, linguistics and music at Tsinghua.
For example, Pauli, who proposed the Pauli exclusion principle wrote an important book on relativity at the age of 21.

For example, Roger Penrose, Hawking's research partner, not only jointly proved the singularity theorem with Hawking. Many of the visual error pictures you know, including the Penrose triangle below, were designed by him.

However, good brains are not so rare.

Although the proportion of people with high intelligence is not large, they are in the absolute number. As mentioned above, people with an IQ of 140 or above account for only 5 / 1000 of the population. There are still 30 million such "talents" in the world.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


Group photo of the fifth Sowell conference in 1927, basically including the world's top physicists at that time.

Richard Feynman, an American theoretical physicist and universally recognized as a genius with high intelligence, often ridiculed that his IQ test in his youth was only 126 points, equivalent to 6% of the population, which was similar to the common sense of "smart children".

Richard Feynman

Although it's hard to be a genius on the IQ scale, it's even harder to be a genius on the mass media and social networks.

Even the Mensa club, which is known for its highly intelligent members, has some members who are truck drivers, housewives, and maintenance workers. Even scientists who have won the Nobel Prize have many names that are only known in the industry.

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking


As Hawking said, "the media needs superheroes in the field of science, just as in all areas of life. But genius is really a continuous ability range, and there is no clear demarcation line. "

Hawking himself knows that. In the face of the media, he said witty and humorous words, sensational predictions, went to space, made movies, and almost called human design science fiction.

Hawking's prediction

The public wants their geniuses to be superheroes. The same is true of Einstein, who is often mentioned in parallel with Hawking.

In 1952, the first president of the state of Israel, Professor Weitzman, died. Einstein participated in political mediation for Israel at the beginning of its founding. Now, as the most famous Jew in the world, he has become the choice of the people. At that time, Israeli Prime Minister and ambassador to the United States took turns to persuade Einstein to succeed as president.

Although Einstein knew that the Israeli people expected him to be their superhero, he declined the request. In his later years, he said, "my relationship with the Jewish people has become the most powerful link in my life since I am fully aware of the instability that we (Israel) face among the nations of the world.”

who-is-smartest-of-20th-century-Einstein-or-Hawking

Einstein's reply

Who is cleverer, Einstein, or Hawking? It's hard to say. After all, one has chosen to advance with retreat, the other has chosen to advance with retreat.

"A brief history of time", Hawking's most famous work, although it is known as "decoration" in the public, it still satisfies the three elements of popular scientific works: many pictures, human speaking, no mathematics. When Hawking wrote the first draft of a brief history of time in the 1970s, there were formula theorems on every page. With the help of the editor, he deleted every formula.

Signature book of a brief history of time

Hawking is a different superhero from Einstein. People need a good story, theoretical physics needs KOL (key opinion leader), and both sides are in touch.

He talked about aliens, about women, and wagered with other people with the magazine(Tibet House). Few people can say what his theoretical contribution is, but you often see Rinpoche talking in a dream, facing a group of young girls and boys, saying: "black hole Quantum... Gravitational waves "

Hawking does seem to have measured IQ. Many biographies have mentioned that when he was just suffering from motor neurosis, he accidentally fell down the stairs. In order to make sure that his brain is not broken, he especially found a set of Mensa Club IQ test questions to do.

Now that Hawking is gone, his real IQ data is likely to go with him.

Who knows that he was not the silly kid who played football and fell in love when he was 17?


Albert Einstein vs Stephen Hawking! (Who Was Best?)



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