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26 basic questions and answers about the novel coronavirus pneumonia.
1. What virus are we facing?
It is called the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and is a newly discovered virus. It is similar to the SARS in 2003. According to the clinical data, the current mortality rate is not as high as SARS.
2. Why is a novel coronavirus very cunning? What is it?
First, we need a novel coronavirus’s structure and characteristics.
The novel coronavirus, as the name suggests, is a coronavirus. This is a kind of RNA virus, which is spherical or elliptical in shape. There is a layer of "coat" made of protein on the outside of the virus, which is called a "capsule" in medicine. There are many prominent "nails" on the membrane, which are called "spinous processes", which are shaped like "crown" under the electron microscope. This is the origin of the name of the "crown" virus.
The novel coronavirus can enter the throat of the human body through the nasal cavity and oral cavity and eye mucosa when infected with the human coronavirus. It can further spread to the trachea and a smaller bronchus and then reach the alveoli.
However, every step into the alveoli, the virus will be protected and monitored by immune cells. Sneezing, coughing, and expectoration are all manifestations of "fighting" between immune cells and viruses.
3. How does a novel coronavirus spread?
Novel coronavirus can be spread by droplets, and it is almost certain that there is contact transmission, but it is not yet clear whether there is air transmission, according to the CDC.
4. I'm young and in good health. Don't worry about that, do you?
At present, novel coronavirus pneumonia cases include more than 80-year-old people, more than 20-year-old, and more than 30-year-old infants.
5. What are the symptoms of human infection with coronavirus?
The symptoms of human coronavirus infection vary in severity. The common clinical manifestations are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. In more serious cases, the infection can lead to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, renal failure, and even death.
The clinical symptoms of novel coronavirus pneumonia cases were mainly fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Nasal obstruction, runny nose, and other upper respiratory symptoms are rare. About half of the patients will have dyspnea after one week. The severe patients can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction which are difficult to correct. Some patients have mild onset symptoms, but no fever. A few patients are critically ill or even dead.
6. How can I prevent it?
For droplet infection: go to a place with many people, and wear a good mask for self-interest.
For contact infection: wash your hands with soap under running water to kill the virus on your hands. Remember to wash your hands frequently.
7. Masks are expensive. Can you reuse them?
There is a time limit for the protection of masks. Generally speaking, if the mask is dirty, wet, or worn for about 4 hours, it must be discarded. If it is used again, it will not play a sufficient protective role. Therefore, in general, it is not recommended to reuse the mask.
8. How to do it if it's too hard to wear a mask?
The medical-surgical mask is more breathable than the N95 mask, and the price is cheaper. It also has enough protective effects on ordinary people, so you can choose to wear them.
If you don't like the band of the mask, you can choose a mask with a tie at the back of your head.
9. Do children need to wear masks?
Wearing a mask will increase respiratory resistance. Children under 3 years old may not wear a mask, but prevention efforts should be strengthened by reducing going out.
10. Do you need to wear goggles when you go out?
Now it seems that only those who are in close contact with patients need to wear goggles. Ordinary people can wear it, but it's not necessary.
11. Do you need to disinfect at home? Is it OK to use white wine or vinegar?
If there is no case or suspected case at home, open windows and ventilate every day.
If you have, you can use alcohol, chlorine disinfectant (such as 84 disinfectant) to wipe the places your hands often touch, such as door handles, switches, remote controls.
Alcohol with a concentration of about 75% can play a role in disinfection. The degree of liquor in the family is generally only 40-50 degrees, which is far from enough.
Vinegar cooking will not have the effect of disinfection, but may also cause irritation to people's eyes and respiratory tract.
12. Can a hot bath prevent pneumonia?
No, the temperature of the hot bath is not enough to kill the virus; if the temperature and time really meet the disinfection standard, it will cause burns or heatstroke.
In addition, smoking, drinking, setting off firecrackers, smoking herbs, drinking hot water, eating garlic, mopping the floor with boiling water, applying sesame oil with nostrils smearing, blowing clothes and face with a hairdryer cannot prevent pneumonia. If you hear about other prevention methods, please ask questions in the comment area. Let's check.
13. When you go home, do you have a virus on your clothes?
The virus lives longer in smooth places, but it has a short time in woolen clothes. Don't worry, you can continue to wear sweaters.
14. Does the express delivery from Wuhan need to be rejected?
No need. The novel coronavirus survived very shortly after leaving the body and had been fully ventilated or sunburned during transportation. It is difficult to survive on the express box.
15. Relatives and friends have no fever. Can we have dinner together?
The time from infection to symptoms is called the incubation period. The incubation period of the pneumonia virus was 3-14 days, during which it was also infectious. This means that you don't know who has the virus or whether you have it.
No door-to-door, no dinner party, is the embodiment of family friendship.
16. It's said that the source of pneumonia is animals. How to deal with pets?
The novel coronavirus is believed to be the source of the 2019 new type of coronavirus, but the first infected person is not necessarily directly exposed to the bat. Similarly, the SARS virus comes from a kind of bat, but after infecting a civet cat in some way, it spread to human society.
The novel coronavirus is not present in this process.
17. Is there any virus in the vegetables bought outside? Can I have it?
The novel coronavirus is afraid of high temperature, so long as it is bought from regular channels, it can be eaten thoroughly.
Again, don't eat animals of unknown origin, let alone wild animals.
18. What does "suspected case" mean?
If there is a novel coronavirus pneumonia typical symptom (fever, dry cough), and recently visited Wuhan or contact with infected persons, it can be classified as a suspected case.
If the suspected cause is tested positive for viral nucleic acid, it is a confirmed case.
19. What should we pay attention to when we go to the hospital?
Wear a mask to protect yourself. Hospital is a place where patients are concentrated. Wearing masks can prevent others from being infected and prevent you from being infected.
20. What is the meaning of "isolation at home"?
In the case of mild symptoms and no potential chronic diseases, the confirmed cases cannot be hospitalized, take medicine at home, observe and isolate.
21. After being diagnosed, how will the doctor treat me?
At present, novel corona virus-specific drugs are not available, and patients are mainly used to relieve symptoms and support treatment to help patients fight diseases.
22. Can novel coronavirus infection treat pneumonia?
Although novel corona virus-induced diseases do not have specific treatment methods, many symptoms can be symptomatic and can effectively alleviate the patient's condition. In addition, supplementary care for infected people may be very effective.
23. How to disinfect novel coronavirus
The novel coronavirus is hot and can kill the virus in 30 minutes at 56 degrees centigrade. Disinfectants containing chlorine, alcohol, iodine, and peroxide can also kill the virus.
75% alcohol and iodophor can be used for skin disinfection (Note: iodophor or other mucosal disinfectants can be used for mucous membrane); chlorine-containing disinfectants (such as 84 disinfectant, bleaching powder, or other chlorine-containing disinfectants / effervescent tablets) can be used for home environment disinfection to prepare the solution with an effective chlorine concentration of 250-500mg / l for wiping or soaking disinfection. Heat resistant articles can be sterilized by boiling for 15 minutes.
24. How to wear a mask correctly
When wearing the mask, fully unfold the folded face, completely wrap the mouth, nose, and jaw, and then press the nose clip tightly to make the mask fully fit the face.
Wash your hands before wearing the mask, or avoid touching the inner face of the mask during wearing, so as to reduce the possibility of contamination of the mask. To distinguish the inside and outside, up and down of the mask, the light-colored face is the inside face, the inside face should be close to the mouth and nose, and the dark face should face out; one end of the metal strip (nose clip) is the top of the mask.
The mask should be replaced regularly. It is not allowed to wear it inside and outside, not to wear it on both sides in turn.
25. What should be paid attention to when returning to work after the holiday?
Please observe the health status of yourself and your family every day. Generally, you need to observe for 2 weeks. If you have a fever, dry cough, and other symptoms, please contact the fever clinic of the medical institution in time for medical treatment, and take the initiative to inform the doctor of the travel history, and whether there are similar cases among the surrounding personnel. Follow the guidance of the medical staff, and cooperate with the medical staff to carry out an epidemiological investigation and provide detailed information. Avoid public transportation to the hospital.
26. How to deal with used masks
For people suspected of having infectious diseases, the used masks shall be handed over to the corresponding staff for treatment as medical waste when they are in medical treatment or under investigation.
For people with fever, cough, expectoration, sneeze, and other symptoms, or people who have been exposed to such people, it is recommended to first throw the mask into the garbage can, then use 5% 84 disinfectant according to the ratio of 1:99, and then sprinkle it on the mask for treatment. If there is no disinfectant, you can also use a sealed bag / fresh-keeping bag to seal the mask and put it into the garbage can.
For ordinary people, because of the low risk, used masks can be directly thrown into the garbage can.
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