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Coronavirus:3 tips and security you need to know. Coronavirus is a very common human virus; the main animal hosts are mammals and birds. About 10% of the common cold is caused by a coronavirus, but because the symptoms are very light, it has not been taken seriously.
SARS virus is a kind of coronavirus, which should be transmitted to human beings through a certain animal host, and it is highly toxic. The novel coronavirus, which is the second most virulent MERS in the Middle East, is the third new Wuhan coronavirus.
Here are 3 common knowledge about viruses. They are all commonplace. I hope they can help you better understand the scientific principles of viral diseases and reduce unnecessary panic.
Chemical poisons are dead. If you touch them at any time, you will be killed. But the virus is alive. Only a living virus is dangerous.
Different viruses have different resistance to environmental factors. For example, HIV and hepatitis B viruses will die soon after leaving the protection of body fluids, thus losing the ability to infect. This is why general physical contact (such as holding hands and hugs) between healthy people and these two types of patients will not lead to infection.
On the contrary, the common cold virus and the influenza virus can survive in the air for a period of time, so the infectivity of the cold is so high.
The survival ability of SARS and MERS in the air is lower than that of the common cold virus, so most of the infections occur in close contact.
Specifically, when the patient coughs, the virus attaches to the droplets and spreads to the air, which is inhaled into the lungs by another person; or the virus attaches to the droplets and lands on solid surfaces (such as tables, chairs, or medical devices), and then the healthy people touch these surfaces with their hands, then touch their own eyes or mouth and nose, and then they are infected. That's why wearing masks and washing your hands often helps reduce the spread of the virus.
The novel coronavirus in Wuhan is almost the same as SARS in the present situation. There is no evidence that they have the ability of long-distance air transmission as a common cold.
There is evidence that the SARS virus is not resistant to high temperatures, so the environment with low temperatures is favorable for the spread of SARS. If the novel coronavirus in Wuhan is really similar to SARS, then the probability will improve this summer.
2. Different viruses and germs
Bacteria are complete cells. They can reproduce by themselves as long as they have proper nutrition and the external environment. But the virus is not a cell, but a small part of genetic material wrapped in a protein shell. It cannot reproduce by itself, so it must rely on the host cell to reproduce itself.
The genetic material of coronavirus is a small segment of RNA, which must be attached to the corresponding host cell surface through its own protein shell, and then enter into the host cell through the mediation of the corresponding cell surface receptor.
After entering the host cell, the virus shell splits and releases the RNA single strand wrapped in it. The latter is similar to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the host cell in structure, which deceives the ribosome of the host cell and induces it to take the virus RNA as the template to produce a new coronavirus shell.
The RNA of coronavirus also contains a small segment of RNA replicas information, so the host's ribose will use this as a template to produce a batch of RNA replicas and replicate a large number of new viral RNA.
Only when these two things are finished, the new virus shell and new virus RNA can be assembled into a new coronavirus and spread to the body through coughing to find a new host. This process takes time, so the most infectious is those patients who have been ill for some time, especially those who are in serious condition because they often have more new viruses.
In contrast, the infectivity of the virus carriers who have not yet been infected is relatively low. Therefore, the biggest source of infection is the hospital.
All in all, maybe that's why who doesn't recommend masks for all. In fact, if you haven't been to the epidemic area recently and there are no people who have just come back from the epidemic area around you, it's unnecessary to wear masks all day long under the condition of less intimate contact, which not only reduces your quality of life but also leads to people who need masks more can't buy masks.
In addition, if you have a cough or low fever, but the symptoms are mild, and you and the people around you have not been to the epidemic area (including the hospital) recently, the best way is to isolate yourself at home for a period of time, and do not go to the hospital easily. Doing so will only increase the possibility of your own recruitment, and increase the burden of the hospital, or put precious medical resources Leave it to patients who need it more. It's good for you, too.
3. The infectivity and lethality of coronavirus
The virus does not infect all cells, but only specific cells with certain surface receptors, without exception.
The host cell surface receptors of the common cold virus (there are many kinds) are mostly located in the upper respiratory tract. The new virus produced from these parts is easy to cough out, so the common cold is very infectious.
The host cell surface receptor of the SARS virus is human ACE2, which is mainly distributed in the epidermal cells of the lower respiratory tract, that is, the deeper part of the lung. The virus produced from these places is not easy to cough out, so SARS is less infectious.
However, because of this, the whole lungs of SARS-infected patients will be affected, which is more likely to lead to respiratory failure, which is why the death rate of SARS is much higher than that of the common cold.
In other words, the infectivity and lethality of most lung viruses are inversely proportional. The more lethal the virus is, the less infectious it is.
The novel corona virus-cell surface receptor of Wuhan is still ACE2, like SARS, according to the latest RNA sequence analysis.
The novel coronavirus is about 3% of the total mortality rate from Wuhan's current data, which is lower than 10% of SARS. However, in the early stage of virus detection, there are often incomplete diagnoses. There should be many patients who are infected with the virus but not seriously ill, so the real mortality rate should be lower than 3%.
Novel coronavirus, however, may explain what is new in Wuhan. The infection of this new coronavirus seems to be higher than SARS.
In contrast, the death rate of flu is less than 1%, but because of the high infectivity of influenza virus, it will cause about 400000 deaths worldwide every year, most of them are patients with poor health, as well as children and old people, young people and healthy adults, and the death rate is much lower.
It must be pointed out that the above content is based on the conclusion drawn from the current situation. In the future, the virus may mutate. We must not take it lightly. Preventing the spread of the virus is the top priority at present.
However, we don't have to panic unnecessarily because the risk of this virus is not very strong. As long as we believe in science and respect the laws of nature, we should be able to overcome it.
Don't panic! Coronavirus and security you need to know that everyone
The novel coronavirus pneumonia has been in the epidemic for more than 4 months. The cunning virus is highly infectious, spread fast, has a low incidence of death, and is characterized by atypical symptoms. However, all these are meant to make themselves faster and better spread. This is the instinct for all organisms to survive and reproduce.
"Know yourself and know your enemy, a hundred battles are invincible". Only by fully understanding the enemy can we find a way to defeat it!
We have combed the existing data in the hope of uncovering a part of its weird veil.
1. What is a novel coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are known to cause diseases that vary from the common cold to severe lung infections, such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Novel coronavirus (novel coronavirus) novel coronavirus, a new type of coronavirus that has not been found in humans, is a widespread virus in nature. It is named after the virus form under the electron microscope and is similar to the crown. So the new coronavirus 2019-nCov of Wuhan, China is so named. NCoV is a new type of coronavirus.
2. What is the relationship between the new coronavirus and SARS?
The novel coronavirus SARS is much milder than 2019-nCov in terms of infectivity and lethality, so we do not need to be overly frightened.
3. What symptoms can you have after infection?
Symptoms of infection depend on the type of virus and the patient's own physical condition, but common symptoms include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath. In more serious cases, the infection can lead to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, or even death.
The specific symptoms are as follows, please see a doctor on time:
Fever (temperature > 38 ℃)
Difficulty breathing during daily activities or rest
Pain in deep breathing
When the cold or flu gets better, it suddenly gets worse
tremble or shudder with cold or fear
4. How to protect scientifically?
(1) Strengthen monitoring.
Take the temperature regularly, pay special attention to the elderly and children. If you find that the temperature is abnormal, especially if the high fever lasts for more than 72 hours, you should take action quickly and get medical treatment in time.
(2) Reduce going out.
Although the current evidence shows that the transmission of the virus is limited, during the Spring Festival and the Spring Festival, it is necessary for everyone to go to the airport, station, shopping mall, and other places where there are a lot of public people, so it is necessary to protect themselves and their children.
(3) Wash your hands frequently.
Hand contact with a variety of pathogens, coronavirus is no exception, hand washing is one of the clear precautions. Children's handwashing will not be very serious. Parents should remember to let children use soap and flowing water and wash their hands for no less than 20 seconds. If it's not convenient to find water and soap when you take your child outside, you can use a hand sanitizer containing 70-80% alcohol.
In addition, it is recommended to wash hands in the following situations:
Go out and go home
After coughing or sneezing
Before touching the mouth, nose, and eyes
Before and after handling fresh ingredients
After going to the toilet
After contact with animals and animal excrement
(4) Wear a mask.
It is recommended to avoid taking children to crowded places or close contact with any patients with flu symptoms. If you have to go, wear a mask properly to reduce the risk of infection. Medical-surgical masks can block 70% of the bacteria, N95 masks can block 95% of the bacteria, but if you go to public places and do not contact the patient, ordinary disposable medical masks can meet the requirements.
5. WHO protection white paper
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency under the United Nations. The purpose of who is to make people all over the world get the highest possible level of health. The main functions of the World Health Organization include: to promote the prevention and control of epidemics and endemic diseases; to provide and improve teaching and training in public health, disease care, and related matters; and to promote the establishment of international standards for biological products.
The following is a novel coronavirus white paper published by WHO for the outbreak of the outbreak. We can see for ourselves and save it for our relatives and friends.
6. Recommended protective equipment
Health's non-contact infrared thermometer can measure quickly in one second. The sensor is from Heyman, Germany. The LED screen with large reading is convenient and clear, and the error can be accurate to 0.1 ℃.
(2) Disinfectant tablet
The alcohol disinfection tablets from the second measurement, each box of 100 tablets, each of which is individually packed, easy to use, and take at any time. It is recommended to keep them in the bag for a long time in case of an emergency.
This is a disinfectant spray from seconds, mild and non-irritating, but also more portable and easy to use. In the face of a virus attack, one person often invites the whole family to suffer. With seconds to measure disinfectant, it can effectively kill bacteria and viruses and prevent the spread of infection. In addition, it's just a preventive measure. It can't kill all bacteria 100%. If you have symptoms, you need to go to the hospital as soon as possible.
This is a light breathing and anti haze kn95 mask. It is a kn95 level. It is anti haze and anti-bacteria. In the face of the virus, it's my attitude to breathe easily. Open the door, go out, get rid of the shackles, and don't be afraid. The 3D split arch framework is more stable and firm, which makes the sportswear, fit firmly, and breathe smoothly.
(5) Last words
Although the epidemic situation is within the safe and controllable range, we can't be too careful. We'd rather be too comprehensive than not prevent it enough. Special attention should be paid to the following points:
Avoid close contact with patients with cough and fever;
The meat and eggs should be cooked thoroughly, do not eat game;
Do not go to the seafood market, live poultry market, or farm;
It is recommended to carry disinfectant cotton tablets/sprays with you when you go out.
Finally, I hope you don't have to be too flustered, and all of you can have a good holiday.
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