Emotions are innate to human beings. Regardless of nationality, race, or gender, there are emotional manifestations and reactions. Cognition and emotion will interact to produce emotional experiences.
In the past, emotion research believed that children’s emotional development was immature and therefore their ability to experience emotions was limited. However, emotions are the innate ability of every child. As the age continues to increase, the emotional abilities of infants and young children will become more complex and mature.
1. The importance of young children’s emotions
Nowadays, many parents are very concerned about children’s brain development and the improvement of children’s intelligence. They want to nurture smart babies from an early age.
However, the clinical discovery of the psychoanalytic school is that childhood experience constructs the basic model of emotion, from a certain degree From the above point view, we can never really overcome the childhood experience, which is the foundation of each person’s construction, and that experience creates different people.
Everyone’s growth is affected by the unique growth family environment and context. Therefore, regardless of the parents What a rich material environment to provide your child, if you really love a child, you have to give him a warm family and a pair of loving parents.
The famous attachment research experiment in psychology is to separate the newborn baby monkey from the mother from the first day of birth and stay with two mothers, the wire mother, and the cloth mother, for the next 165 days.
There is a baby bottle hanging on the mother's breast, but the mother of the cloth doesn't have it. Although baby monkeys can drink milk with their wire mothers, they would rather not drink milk than stay with cloth mothers. From this, it is concluded that physical contact has even more effect on the development of baby monkeys than breastfeeding.
They only go to their mothers when they are in need of a diet. Therefore, the mother who has milk is the mother, and the mother who has love, and love is the survival and development of human beings. Research on genetic biology shows that love can change a person’s inheritance.
Research on cognitive neuroscience has found that childhood emotional experience directly affects the brain. Therefore, for children in early childhood education, give children good Care and emotional education are very necessary.
2. Children's emotional cognition
Emotional cognition means that children can recognize their own emotions from others, knowing that when they encounter different events, they will have different emotional reactions.
If children understand their own emotional reactions, it will be easier to express their emotional goals and needs. If you encounter a problem in your life, it will be easier to find a way to solve the problem. A five-year-old child can clearly know himself and experience a single emotion.
When he is separated from a good friend, he will feel sad and sad, but the child’s mood changes very quickly. When he is blamed by his mother, he feels sad. At that time, after a few minutes, he might be shaken by the delicious cake and laugh.
The emotional ability of each child will have obvious individual differences with the increase of age. The early emotional development of the child can predict the performance of the child’s emotional ability in the future.
When the child distinguishes the protagonist’s emotions in social situations or knows how to say from the emotional chart Given the correct name of the emotion, he may be better at resolving conflicting emotions and better able to deal with complex emotions in the future.
3. Children's Emotion Regulation
Emotion regulation is a set of processes that include emotional arousal, maintenance, correction, and positive and negative emotional reactions. When an individual is emotionally aroused, he will use strategies to balance his emotions.
Simply put, emotional regulation is the process of emotional operation. Cole et al. (1994) found through literature research that infants and young children have different emotion regulation strategies at different stages of development, and roughly summarized the four stages of development of infants, toddlers, preschool, and infancy.
Research has found that children’s emotions are stimulated by factors such as the children themselves, cognition, past experience, original emotional state, good friends, etc., and concluded that children’s emotion regulation strategies mainly include:
- Hitting or kicking
- Retreat and leave
Researchers believe that there are positive and negative differences in children’s emotional regulation. Positive emotional regulation can help children to ease their emotions faster, such as expressing their emotions through cognitive thinking or language expression.
It is helpful for children to quickly recover their emotions, while negative emotion regulation strategies may not necessarily help children solve the problems they encounter in life.
For example, when they are angry, they can vent themselves by hitting others, which is not good for the children themselves. The regulation of emotions, the regulation of children's emotions is affected by specific situations.
Emotional regulation is affected by external and internal factors, leading to individual differences in individual emotional regulation. The external environment’s influence is mainly the influence of parents and teachers.
When preschool teachers guide children’s emotional education, they can plan diversified Emotional education courses that are more likely to be a cultural construction, teaching children to show emotions that conform to social norms in their culture. In other words, if teachers can construct an emotional education curriculum and create a sense of security, it will be more helpful for children to understand and regulate emotions.
Many times, when children in kindergartens have problems, it is emotional problems. It is recommended that kindergarten teachers discuss emotions with children and listen to the children’s various voices, especially after the children’s emotional events, learn more about the two children’s thoughts, and let The two young children's handling of the incident got satisfactory results, and they taught the young children how to adjust their emotions.
Or the kindergarten teacher should rebuild the children’s emotional curriculum, which can refer to the emotional situation of each child in the usual class. The content of the curriculum should cover the perception and recognition of learning emotions, the understanding and expression of children’s emotions, and appropriate emotional adjustment methods, etc.
In the course of the implementation course, it can be completed by providing children with positive emotional demonstrations, designing activities that allow children to vent their emotions appropriately, and sharing and discussing children's emotional events so that children can understand that there is more than one emotional adjustment.
In the early childhood stage of preschool, spontaneous management of facial expressions is also revealed, which is an effective way to regulate emotions. The first conscious or successful attempt by children to make facial expressions usually occurs in the function of self-expression or social expression, or the true emotions about the self that deceive others.
A self-management and control of facial expressions may be manifested in being a grandfather. When he and his grandma gave him a piece of bread, although the child wanted more mentally, he did not show it. Instead, he gladly accepted the cake from his grandma or grandpa.
Some of these new skills include spontaneous control of facial expressions that are useful for maintaining functions rather than derailing social interactions. Children will also learn to show their emotions to promote social contact. This spontaneous control Facial expressions are very important, which shows that children have a certain amount of effort to control emotions. Through these efforts, children will have more control and may better play social interactions.
4. Emotional education of young children
Emotional education in early childhood can improve children’s emotional abilities, help cultivate children’s interpersonal relationships, know how to use other people’s perspectives to think about problems, resolve conflicts with surrounding children more easily, and exhibit fewer aggressive behaviors. , More likely to use positive methods to solve problems.
The study found that domestic scholars use picture books to carry out emotional education and design activities to enhance children's emotional ability. This study summarizes emotional education into the following methods through content analysis:
Role-playing is an experiential activity often performed in kindergartens. Role-playing can help children experience emotions, connect with others around them, and learn to establish social relationships. Children may lack contact skills, so they can be given emotional skills through role-playing.
Teachers can give children opportunities to show themselves, communicate with others, perform some emotional events, and help children establish emotional concepts through certain story situations so that children can understand what role-playing is, and they can also use role-playing. To get the opportunity to practice, through role-playing, to get the opportunity to cooperate with others around.
(2) Group sharing
Group sharing is also one of the methods of children’s emotional issues. Teachers can use group discussions or whole-class discussions based on emotional events or issues that children often face. Teachers and children share past emotional experiences and find emotional adjustment together.
The way to learn emotional tone, I am very...because... let the children first tell their feelings about a certain event, and then let each child say how he feels about the same event, and describe the emotional experience, And then let the children discover that the same angry or sad emotions may also happen to the children around them, and understand the coexisting changes of such emotions. It can also help young children build self-confidence.
You are great because of what you have done. I'm great because of what I did. When children have conflicts, they can deal with the current situation first, including comforting, holding away, transferring, and taking away, and then describe the situation and add an emotional tone. We need to teach children to speak, not cry or lose their temper, and encourage children to respond to themselves.
(3) Picture book education
Using emotion-related picture book themes will help children understand their own emotions. Early childhood picture books are a positive medium for children to learn emotions. If parents help children choose good emotional picture books, they can increase their emotional experience, cognition, and understanding.
In the specific emotions of the picture book, we use emotions as different media of the picture book according to the different characters in the picture book. Children can learn about different emotional facial expressions and make appropriate emotional responses in different situations through the different characters in the picture book.
Specific picture books allow you to understand abstract and complex emotions. In addition, picture books can continuously guide children to recognize their own negative emotions, and they can also encourage children to tell stories and express their emotions from stories.